By Alan Boraas.
In accordance with reference fabric via: James Kari, Ph.D., Peter Kalifornsky, and Joan Tenenbaum, Ph.D.
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Extra resources for An introduction to Dena'ina grammer: The Kenai dialect
Adverbs of Time Adverb Meaning ch’iteshnich midnight Example ch’iteshnich shegh niyu nunigi ch'qeyan Meaning he came to me at midnight always fog elugh yeshegh he has not yet hooked it I won’t see him for a long time ch'qeyan always da’a dahdi (yedahdi, yedaqdi) deghu elugh never then at that time elughesht’a late, for a long time a long time the first time, for the first time suddenly, abruptly all year long while, meanwhile in the future elughasht’a eztghesh’igh before, in the past, long ago htsast’a qut’ana dnighelt’a htsat q’u nu’iju he came a while ago hełch' husht'a darkness in a moment ełdu hdi gheli hentq’u heyi daghisedi hnu htsahda, htsatda, qtsahda htsast'a, ts’itsat htsat htse huqedlan husht'a, husht’an husht’ada when not yet a while ago previously slowly in a moment later on hdi gheli hentq’u yedghichet the first time, for the first time he let it go suddenly long ago there were lots of people Page 41 Adverbs, Independent hut’u jan gu, q’udi jan qech’ jan yach’ janiq’, janiq’e janq'u janteh ki, kiq’u ki k'usht'a ki’it ch’u ki kih kitsa k'eldinteh k’eldinteh hyanq’u k'ghulugh la’a lugh łqenzi, hlenzi nanutset nazah niłghena niłghena q’u niłhghena niłk’enteh niłnunu niłt’en teh, niłteh nuytelqushch'u q’edyeh q’u qendu (archaic) qezahda qghenu previously today sometime today, during the day sometime today all day nothing has changed, still daytime, during the day again never again now and then later on, in the future next sometimes jan qech’ gheshtnu I worked all day janiq’e gheshtnuh ełkun janq'u I worked all day hzila ki qil gheli ki k'usht'a morning mist again really terrible never again gini łuq’a kih niłtu nen kitsa yuq' hdaznet k'eldinteh it's still raining this fish is for later you next colorful sunrise sometimes only occasionally the end of a span of time, eternity constantly long time unconscious before our time, our history in the future one after another, constantly one right after the other at regular intervals repeatedly, at regular intervals, in rapid succession rarely taking turns sometimes, occasionally every day a little while ago in the past in the future after, when, the other side of k'ghulugh usdet tsadi let it be without end elugh tusyul hlenzi cheł’an Dena'ina nanutset he won’t go yet I’m getting dizzy Dena'ina history niłghena sht’a qenash he talks repeatedly qezahda yaghali gheli qitulał iłyuts qeghnu It will be really good in the future when it started to snow Page 42 Adverbs, Independent quhlanh, quqlanh q’esdu (archaic) q'u q’u idak’i q’u ki tsa q'udi q'udi gu q’udihdi q’udi jani q’udishla q’ushich’a q’ushla, q’ushlaq’u suk gheli slowly day before yesterday just now, now, stop, yet, enough, soon that’s ok, all right (answer to “let’s go” once again, one more time now right now just now (previously) today just about, right then (lit.
Page 58 Verb Themes Un bedgheshni = I called him to come Theme: d gender + Ø classifier + ni stem ↓ Adverb Morphemes un Object Pronou n Gender be d ↓ Mode/Aspect transitional Morpheme changes meaning come theme element mode ghe perfective i -i deletes to avoid double vowels perfect (past tense) ↓ Inner subject Pronoun Classifier Stem esh Ø ni sh e deletes to avoid double vowels I say, tell (call) mode: perfect aspect: durative him perception of sound un come be object pronoun, be, means him, her, or it.
The following table contains those Dena'ina conjunctions and particles that are individual words not embedded in the verb. Some are considered adverbs and are also included in that section, or occur as enclitics. Table 5. Conjunctions and Particles Dena'ina Meaning Comments can be used between two nouns or betwen two sentences, ch'u and can also be used at the end of a sentence to indicate what comes next in a text and then, yethdi Usually at the beginning of a sentence next hq'u but often used at the beginning of a sentence or paragraph to ki More mean, "there is more to the story" k'u also, too dach' thus ighi well, so “du” at the end of a sentence or expression turns it into a du “question” question.
An introduction to Dena'ina grammer: The Kenai dialect by Alan Boraas.