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By Zygmunt Frajzyngier

Wandala is a hitherto undescribed important Chadic language spoken in Northern Cameroon and Northeastern Nigeria. The Grammar of Wandala describes, in a non-aprioristic method, phonology, morphology, syntax, and all sensible domain names grammaticalized within the language. The grammatical constitution of Wandala is kind of assorted from the constitution of different Chadic languages defined to this point in either the formal skill and the features which were grammaticalized. The grammar presents proofs for the postulated hypotheses relating varieties and features. The grammar is written in a method available to linguists operating inside varied theoretical frameworks.

The phonology is characterised via a wealthy consonantal method, a 3 vowel approach, and a tone approach. The language has ample vowel insertion principles and a vowel concord approach. Vowel deletion marks phrase-internal place, and vowel-insertion marks phrase-final place. the 2 principles permit the parsing of the clause into components. The language has 3 forms of reduplication of verbs, of which code aspectual and modal differences. The unfavorable paradigms of verbs vary from affirmative paradigms within the coding of subject.

The pronominal affixes and wide process of verbal extensions code the grammatical and semantic family in the clause. Wandala has strange clausal constitution, in that during a pragmatically impartial verbal clause, there's just one nominal argument, both the topic or the article. those arguments can keep on with quite a few materials. The grammatical function of that argument is coded by means of inflectional markers at the verb and such a lot curiously, on no matter what lexical or grammatical morpheme precedes the constituent. The markers of grammatical family members further to verbs are various for various periods of verbs.

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The evidence for this hypothesis is provided by the fact that the hypothetical and all other moods must be overtly marked. The hypothetical mood and hedging on the truth can be coded by a variety of means, including the marker má in clause-initial position. Another means is the use of the expression bà kà ‘you say’. The deontic modality has two sub-domains, imperative (an order to the addressee(s)), and obligative (wishes with respect to all grammatical persons). The imperative is coded through gemination of the initial consonant.

The most frequent clausal order is matrix clause-complement clause. Content-interrogative complements of verbs of saying may precede the matrix clause. Direct speech may be preceded by the complementizer gə̀ní or the complementizer də̀gìyá ‘behold’, or it may be marked by a pause preceding it. The comment-clause marker wá precedes the complement clause of a variety of verbs when some other material, such as a nominal subject, occurs between the verb and the complement clause. The complement clause preced- An outline of the grammar of Wandala 21 ed by the comment marker wá may be direct or indirect speech, and may have indicative or deontic modality.

Y’ The glottalized palatal glide has been recorded in several nouns: ŋy’à ‘morning’; ŋyé ‘become a sorcerer, a monster’; y’é ‘back of the neck’. 36 Phonology 3. 1 Introduction The rules of phonotactics of underlying consonants differ from the rules of phonotactics for phonetic realizations. Wandala allows any two consonants in the underlying structures in word-initial position, including geminated consonants. In the phonetic structures, no geminated consonants may occur in word-initial position, and only some clusters are allowed in that position.

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A Grammar of Wandala by Zygmunt Frajzyngier

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