By International Development Research Centre
Booklet by way of foreign improvement examine Centre
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Extra resources for A Decade of Reform: Science & Technology Policy in China
The provincial governments seem to have less money to induce cooperation from central units. The Shenyang branch of CAS, for instance, seems oriented much more toward the central CAS than toward provincial concerns. A third model is found in the city of Shanghai. Like Liaoning and Shaanxi, Shanghai has abundant S&T assets, including those under central control and those under the Shanghai government. Although Shanghai was slow in reform at first, it is now moving rapidly. Shanghai and the lower Yangtze Valley are becoming favoured destinations for foreign investors in technology-intensive industries.
Similarly, SSTC can set policy guidance for the ministerial S&T system — on reform policy, for instance — but because policy is separate from budgeting, large areas of discretion remain with the ministries. Because SPC has a role in national budgeting and SETC has a role in dispensing technical renovation funds and in SOE-management reform, the power of these commissions over ministries is even greater. When viewed in relation to local government, a somewhat different picture emerges. In contrast to the situation in the former Soviet Union, centralization within a ministerial system was considerably weaker in China as a result of conscious decentralization of decisionmaking going back to the late 1950s.
The groups of stakeholders include – Policy-making institutions; – The principal S&T institutions; – New organizational forms created by the reform process; – Organizations of the scientific community; – Relevant financial institutions; and – Regulatory bodies. 5 A definition of innovation is given in the first paragraph of Chapter 5. Models of R&D and innovation Many people with whom the Mission met appeared to base their ideas on a simplified linear model of R&D and innovation. This model, which is usually referred to as the ―technologypush‖ model and has been largely abandoned in the industrialized world, suggests that these processes are simply linked in some variation of a scheme like the following: Basic research applied research technological development innovation The practical consequence of belief in this model is that institutions and programs tend to be situated at discrete points along this spectrum, specializing in one or other activity, and tend to be organized along lines of scientific discipline (for example, institutes of basic research in some aspect of physics).
A Decade of Reform: Science & Technology Policy in China by International Development Research Centre